A mikveh is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism. The Erfurt mikveh dates from the 13th century and is now a museum.
The Jewish community of Erfurt first appears in the historical record in the late 11th century, with the earliest recorded building of the synagogue dating from then. For centuries Jews and Christians lived side by side in the centre of town. The year 1349 marked a sudden end: In a pogrom the whole Jewish community of Erfurt was destroyed and the Old Synagogue was converted into a storehouse. In 1354 a second medieval Jewish community settled in Erfurt on municipal instigation. However in 1453 the Erfurt Council enforced the emigration of the Jews from the city.